The ancient city of Uplistsikhe has been inhabited since the Iron Age. From the first century BC they started carving out cave houses and around the 4th century Uplistsikhe was an important stop on the Silk Road from Azerbaijan to the Black Sea. There was a market, pharmacy, shops and animal shelters. In addition, there was drainage and fresh drinking water facilities. After the Muslim conquests in the 10th, the city fell into disrepair.